White-faced IbisPlegadis chihi

adult, breeding
Arthur Morris/VIREO
immature (1st winter)
Greg Lasley/VIREO
juvenile
Glenn Bartley/VIREO
adult, nonbreeding
Arthur Morris/VIREO
adult, breeding
Greg Lasley/VIREO

Description

Very similar to the Glossy Ibis, and mostly replaces it west of the Mississippi River, although the two species occur together in parts of the southeast. White-faced Ibises wander through the west during the warmer months, and they may quickly find and take advantage of temporary new habitat after rains or flooding. Even their nesting sites often change from year to year with changes in local water levels.

Habitat

Fresh marshes, irrigated land, tules. For foraging, favors very shallow water, as in marshes, flooded pastures, irrigated fields. Sometimes in damp meadows with no standing water. Prefers fresh water marsh, but sometimes forages in salt marsh.

Feeding Diet

Mostly insects, crustaceans, earthworms. Feeds on aquatic insects and their larvae, as well as those living in damp soil. Eats many crayfish and earthworms. Also eats frogs, snails, small fish, leeches, spiders.

Feeding Behavior

Forages mostly by wading in shallow water, probing in soft mud for food. Also picks insects and other items from surface of water or soil, or from plants above water.

Nesting

Breeds in colonies. Colony sites often shift from year to year with changes in water levels. Nest site is usually in dense marsh growth (such as bulrush or cattails) or in low shrubs or trees above water, sometimes on ground on islands. Nest (built by both sexes) is bulky platform of bulrushes or other plant stems, with depression at center. Material gathered close to nest site, sometimes stolen from vacant nests of other birds. Eggs: 3-4, sometimes 2-5. Clutches of more than 5 probably result from other females laying eggs in nest. Eggs pale blue-green to dark turquoise. Incubation is by both sexes, 17-26 days, usually 21-22 days. Young: Both parents feed young, by regurgitation. At age of 3 weeks, young may move about outside nest; attempt to fly at 4 weeks, can usually fly fairly well at 5 weeks.

Eggs

3-4, sometimes 2-5. Clutches of more than 5 probably result from other females laying eggs in nest. Eggs pale blue-green to dark turquoise. Incubation is by both sexes, 17-26 days, usually 21-22 days. Young: Both parents feed young, by regurgitation. At age of 3 weeks, young may move about outside nest; attempt to fly at 4 weeks, can usually fly fairly well at 5 weeks.

Young

Both parents feed young, by regurgitation. At age of 3 weeks, young may move about outside nest; attempt to fly at 4 weeks, can usually fly fairly well at 5 weeks.

Conservation

Local numbers fluctuate, but total population in North America apparently increased from 1970s to 1990s. Has expanded breeding range somewhat eastward during same period.

Range

Present all year in southern California and coastal Texas and Louisiana; migratory elsewhere. Birds from all populations are likely to wander. Strays have reached Atlantic Coast often in recent decades.

Listen

nasal quacks #1
nasal quacks #2

Similar Species

adult, breeding

Glossy Ibis

Flocks of Glossy Ibises wade in the shallows of eastern marshes, probing for food with their sickle-shaped bills. Widespread in the Old World, the species is found in the New World mainly in the West Indies and along our Atlantic Coast, especially Florida, where it was quite scarce as recently as the 1930s. It may have invaded within the last few centuries, riding the trade winds across from West Africa to the Caribbean.

Vireo

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