Baltimore OrioleIcterus galbula
7-8 1/2" (18-22 cm). Male has black head, back, wings, and tail; orange breast, rump, and shoulder patch. Female olive-brown, with dull yellow-orange underparts and two dull white wing bars.
Clear and flute-like whistled single or double notes in short, distinct phrases with much individual variation.
nasal begging calls of fledglings
two note calls & simple whistles
chatter calls & harsh song
songs & whistles #1
songs & whistles #2
songs & whistles #3
encounter calls #1
chatter of immatures
encounter calls #2
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Deciduous woodlands and shade trees. Before the tree's decline, the American elm was a favorite nesting site for the eastern bird.
Breeds from Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia south through Dakotas south to eastern Texas, Louisiana, and Virginia. Winters in Florida and southern Atlantic coast.
Recently the Baltimore Oriole was separated from the more western Bullock's Oriole. When trees were planted on the Great Plains, the two forms extended their ranges and met. Despite the differences in their appearance, it was found that they interbred, and that most birds in the central plains were hybrids, so the birds were combined into a single species called the Northern Oriole. Now, it seems that in some places the birds are choosing mates of their own type, and they are considered separate species again.
4-6 grayish eggs, spotted and scrawled with dark brown and black. Nest a well-woven pendant bag of plant fibers, bark, and string, suspended from the tip of a branch.